* The following report from the FDA outlines drugs that are banned from food animals. The underlined sections show those that are routinely used on horses.



DRUGS PROHIBITED ON FOOD ANIMALS

(NOTE: The new FDA regulations approved on Feb 13, 2003 include as well phenylbutazone, aka bute)

Some drugs may not be used to treat food-producing animals, even in an extra-label manner. These include: CHLORAMPHENICOL, CLENBUTEROL, DIETHYLSTILBESTROL (DES), DIMETRIDAZOLE, IPRONIDAZOLE,OTHER NITROIMIDAZOLES, AND NITROFURANS-FURAZOLIDONE AND NITROFURAZONE (EXCEPT FOR TWO (2) TOPICALS LABELED FOR USE IN CATTLE THAT WERE NOT AFFECTED BY FDA'S WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF NITROFURAZONE AND FURAZOLIDONE)

In addition, all sulfonamides, except the three (3) sulfonamides approved for use in lactating dairy cattle, are excluded from any use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. The three (3) approved sulfonamides for lactating dairy cattle are; sulfadimethoxine (not the sustained release boluses), sulfabromomethazine, and sulfaethoxypyridazine.

TOPICAL ANTISEPTICS AND WOUND DRESSINGS:
This category includes creams, salves, ointments, sprays, wound dressings, some foot products, teat dips, tincture of iodine and others. The following is a list of commonly used topical antiseptics and wound dressings that are exempt from the labeling requirements of the PMO. They should be used as topicals only and be stored so as not to contaminate the milk or product contact surfaces.

Iodine.
Alcohol.
Hydrogen peroxide.
Teat dips.
Clorox.
Formalin (for cattle foot baths).
Blue Coat.
Granulex Spray.
Trypzyme Aerosol.
Kopertox
Furazolidone aerosol powder (trade names such as Topazone and Furox aerosol (labeled for use in cattle).
Nitrofurazone topical powder for pinkeye and wounds (trade names such as NFZ Puffer and P.E. 7).
Chlorhexidine (Nolvasan) solutions, ointments, and creams for topical use only.

NOTE: The Nolvasan (chlorhexidine) Cap-Tabs and the Nolvasan Suspension for intrauterine treatments are no longer labeled for use in cattle. They are approved for use in horses only. [Note that horses are not refered as cattle]

NITROFURAN DRUGS, FURAZOLIDONE AND NITROFURAZONE:
The withdrawal by FDA of 10 approvals for nitrofurans (furazolidone and nitrofurazone) on August 23, 1991, affected products that were approved for a variety of uses in swine and poultry. On July 20, 1992, FDA revised Compliance Policy Guide 7125.06 "Extra-Label Use of New Animal Drugs in Food-Producing Animals" to reflect the Commissioner's conclusion that the nitrofuran drugs are unsafe for oral or parenteral use in food animals.

Nitrofuran drugs are listed with those of highest priority for regulatory attention regarding extra-label use in food-producing animals. The use of furazolidone, nitrofurazone or other nitrofurans in food-producing animals in any form, EXCEPT for the two (2) topical preparations labeled for use in cattle, is not allowed.

There are only two topical nitrofurans labeled by FDA for use in cattle. They were not affected by the withdrawals and remain as legal products for their labeled indications.

They are:
(1) Furazolidone aerosol (spray) powder (Trade names such as Topazone and Furox aerosol).
(2) Nitrofurazone topical powder for pinkeye and wounds (Trade names such as NFZ Puffer and P.E. 7).

The two topicals labeled for cattle as discussed above do not violate item 16r.

There are solutions, ointments, salves, sprays, and creams that contain furazolidone or nitrofurazone labeled for topical use in horses, dogs, and cats and for intrauterine use in horses. They were not withdrawn by FDA and remain as legal products for their intended uses in non-food-producing animals. The use or storage on dairy farms of any withdrawn nitrofuran or the use of sprays, powders, solutions, ointments, salves, and creams labeled for use in horses, dogs, and cats violates item 16r.

SYSTEMICALLY ACTING DRUGS THAT ARE APPLIED TOPICALLY:

The following list of drugs are applied as topicals for their systemic effect against internal parasites or cattle grubs. They are not topical antiseptics or wound dressings and they are not labeled for use in lactating dairy cattle and therefore they are not exempt under the Item 16r footnote.

DRUG   TRADE NAME   EXAMPLES
Fenthion   Spotton Cattle Insecticide   Tiguvon Pour On
Famphur and Xylene   Purina Grub Kill   Warbex Famphur Pour On
Phosmet   Star Bar GX-118   Prolate 1-E
Ivermectin     Ivomec Pour On
Levamisole   Tramisol Pour On   Totalon

Because of their potential to cause residues in milk, the use of these drugs on lactating dairy cattle or their storage with the lactating cattle drugs is a violation of item 16r.

DIMETHYLSULFOXIDE (DMSO):

DMSO is a by-product of the paper industry and is able to carry some drugs rapidly through the skin and other tissues. There are no FDA approved uses for DMSO in food-producing animals. Approvals do exist for uses in horses and dogs. Industrial grade DMSO is widely available for various non-medical uses such as paint remover and other solvent uses. DMSO is often found stored on dairy farms or mixed with other drugs intended for use in dairy animals. Such use may lead to an increased chance of drug residues, off odor and off flavor milk.

FDA considers the use of DMSO for any veterinary purposes other than approved uses in dogs and horses to be illegal. DMSO is an unapproved new animal drug which is unsafe to use in food-producing animals.

The storage or use of DMSO is a violation of itme 16 r.

PESTICIDES/RODENTICIDES; INSECTICIDE SPRAYS, DUSTS, POWDERS AND POUR- ONS:

Pesticides/rodenticides/insecticides are usually regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Ordinarily, an EPA regulated product can be identified by an EPA registration number on the label. Only products labeled for use on or around dairy cattle or milking equipment should be used and only according to their labels. EPA regulated pesticides/rodenticides/insecticides are not controlled under 16r but the improper use or storage of pesticides or rodenticides violates section 21r of the PMO.
 
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